Newfoundland Status of Women Council, Newsletter, Vol. 3 No. 6, June 1976
Newfoundland Status of Women Council.
P.O Box 6072 June 1976
St. John’s, Nfld. Volume 3, No. 6
A Canadian female honors graduate with a university Batchelor (sic) of Arts degree can expect to earn on the average almost as much as a male employee with a grade eight education.
Notes for an address by the Honorable George Proud, Minister responsible for the Status of Women, to the P.E.I Legislative Assembly.
On the Gooooooooooooooooo
AT THE WOMEN’S CENTRE
Our monthly meeting was held on 3 May. We apologise for the Newsletter not getting out in time, but there was a delay at the printers.
Martha Butler gave am excellent presentation of information on the newly founded Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women with Marian joining in with other details. Most informative!
We also viewed the “Habitat 2000” film which was interesting but not overwhelming.
The month of May saw our Ombudsman, Ambrose Peddle, visit the Centre for an exchange of information with the LIP workers. We might be able to refer to him, some of the problems that come our way.
Frankie O’Flaherty met with the LIP workers also. Topic - The Rights of Children. A most informative morning.
Helen Symonds has now taped twelve advertisements with CJON. These ads are on various issues pertinent to the Status of Women and the Women Centre. Keep listening to CJON. They are being played throughout the day - free time compliments of CJON.
Have you seen the Summer Games Ads? What do you think about them? Your executive committee feels they are definitely sexist and discriminatory. We have written Summer Games Headquarters to this effect. If you feel the same way, write also. The address is 202 Elizabeth Avenue.
Our next monthly meeting is June 5th. We hope to see more participation.
The last of June brings to a close our LIP Projects. These workers are doing tremendous things but we’ll need volunteer staffers when they finish. Let us have a morning or an afternoon of your time. We need your help to keep the Centre open. Contact Women’s Centre let us know when you are available.
JUNE 7th Membership Meeting
Starting Time: 8:15 P.M.
TOPIC for discussion:
N.A.C. (National Action Committee on the Status of Women.) Annual Meeting, will be discussed by our chair person, Wendy Williams. Discussion will centre on Women and Economics: Canada Pension Plan, Day Care, wages, government spending, misspending,-defence Budget, ...resolutions.
Have a look at the letter from the Roberta Ryan Committee (on the bulletin board). She has decided to legally fight the discrimination she received upon applying for a job as a police officer in North Sydney in 1973…. We will be passing the hat, to ofset (sic) some of the legal expenses she is trying to cover.
This issue of the Newsletter was produced by:
Susan McNicholas, Sandy Penrose, and Elizabeth Alexander
Contributions came from Diane Siegel, Sally Davis, Celia Griffiths, Marian Atkinson, Heather Fawcett, Paula Healey, Melva Webber (vogue), Denyse Theberge Rousselet (The Canadian Nurse), Laura Lawrence, and Dorothy Gibbons.
Major Rhoda Sainsbury did not start the Salvation Army in Nfld. She was an officer for many years. She was the first social working. The Salvation Army was started in 1886 by a female - Captain Emma Dawson (formerly Churchill - from Portugal Cove)
NEW ADDTTIONS TO OUR LIBRARY
Recently added to our library are the following books;
Don't Say Yes When You Want to Say No by Herbert Fensterheim, Ph.D. and Jean Baer. This is an Assertiveness Training book that teaches you to assert your rights in work, marriage, sex, social situations and family life, Also teaches relaxation exercises, how to deal with depression and change bad habits such as overeating.
The Clear Spirit, Twenty Canadian women and Their Times. Edited by Mary Quayle Innis and published for the Canadian Federation of University Women. Contains documented biographies of Canadian women who lived during the last century and made a mark on Canadian history through their efforts and careers.
Women in Canada, edited by Marylee Stephenson. A collection of articles on Canadian women showing their many roles in Canadian society, from the bottom to the top of the status pile.
Marriage is Hell by Kathrin Perutz. This book is about the anachronisms of marriage, forms of marriage in other cultures, and how people are rebelling against the traditional forms of marriage today.
Yukon Women by Jo Ann Bradley, Anthea Bussey, Tracey Read and Audrie Walker. Written by the Yukon Status of Women Council for International Women's Year. It covers the topics of "Yukon History and Women", "Yukon Women and the Law", "Women and Yukon Foods", "Some Yukon Women" and "Yukon Women and Health".
Divorce, What a woman needs to Know by Barbara B. Kirsch. This book tells women all aspects of divorce law - about alimony, child support, custody, visitation rights, etc. Though written in the United States much of it is also applicable to Canada.
Would you like to learn the basics of AUTO MAINTENANCE -- trouble-shooting, changing tires, etc. and appear much more intelligent when you do have to take your car in for repairs?
Our next auto maintenance course is scheduled to begin Tues. June 1st. It will meet Tuesday and Thursday nights for 2 weeks from 7:30 - 9:30, a total of eight hours. Cost of the course is $6.00. For further information or to register, phone the Women's Centre 753-0220.
FRIDAY NIGHT AT THE WOMEN'S CENTRE.
Due to popular response to our ad in the last newsletter, looking for young women wanting to get together, we have started a Friday night conciousness (sic) raising and social group. They will meet at the Women's Centre from 8 - 10 P.M. Activities will range from discussion on topics of interest to them - marriage, dating, sex-typing etc., to playing records and, just socializing. If you want to join us, call the Women's Centre, and let us know.
Committee to discuss our reply to National Advisory Council on Volunteering, Monday, May 31st at 9:00 P.M.
Why not come and express your opinions on volunteers, and its relationship to Government.
THE NEW SCHOOL
"Humanistic approach to the problems of injustice, pollution, poverty, prejudices, resource depletion, revolution and war. Actualizes values of compassion, equality, freedom, non-violence (sic), The New School, planned for July 31 - August 13th on Grindstone Island near Ottawa. Cost for 2 weeks of an intensive, enjoyable and challenging experience is only 200.00 including all necessities. Apply now if interested, by writing to Nancy Bayly, 562 Johnson Street, Kingston, Ontario, Canada."
FEEDBACK ON Ms.
Several people had commented on the Gloria Steinem- Ms. article in last month's Newsletter, and as ideas and opinions differed greatly, a group gathered together to discuss the implications of the REDSTOCKTNGS press release. Present were: Lois, Celia, Fran, Helen P., Lillian, Carmel, Sally, Diane, Sue McN., and Rae.
To refresh your memories, the article in question was in two parts- a press release and comments based on a 16 page article, both originating with REDSTOCKINGS. Included in the article were facts and figures to back up the claim that Ms. magazine had connections with the C.I.A. through Gloria Steinem, an editor, and therefore it was dangerous for this magazine to be accepted as the voice of the Women's Liberation Movement,
A copy of the 16 page REDSTOCKINGS article exposing Steinem had been read by most of the group. Some felt that it was purely a personal attack on Steinem, a feminist, and that under no circumstances should women within the movement pull down another woman (a recent Ms. article on "Trashing" was discussed.) Doubt was cast on the truthfulness of the facts of the C.I.A. involvement in Ms.
To reinforce the argument on the involvement of the C.I. A., Rae called attention to TIME for May 10, 1976, page 18 where there was a report on the recent publication of a two volume exposé of the C.I.A. and the F.B.I. by the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence. The exposé documents that the two agencies "took the law into their own hands in the cause of preserving liberty." This included bugging phones, breaking into homes, slipping LSD to unsuspecting bar patrons, planning assassinations, undermining governments and infiltrating Women's liberation Groups.
During the evening's discussion it was brought out that the articles in Ms. were often very interesting and useful, But what does Ms. provide? - a good, safe, glossy magazine which can gently introduce women's liberation ideas to many women and men who would not otherwise read a more "feminist" publication.
A beginning was made during the evening to point a direction for the women's movement. If we look for a common denominator which can appeal to all women in the movement, it was decided that it would be to work for bringing about equality for the female sex in all aspects of society. Lois stressed that we must not become divided on the issue of how to bring this about since it can be worked on from different approaches, Some may wish to get women into leading positions in government, in the professions, etc., while others feel that society needs to be changed before real progress can be made.
It was brought up that what is the point in working for women's rights when the possibility of there even being a world in 25 -- 50 years from now is a very real concern.
Such discussion as the above are valuable in helping us to advance in our thinking towards solving at least some of the problems that confront us. An operating principle might be that there is no one way to be a feminist in the final analysis
Cont’d pg. 9.
WOMEN IN TOUCH
Are you a victim of a very common fear, shared by many women today? Do you feel that the world is passing you by while you're busy in your home?
Instead of taking out your frustrations on family and friends, and letting the "blues" build up, why not give "Women in Touch" a try?
Sixteen years ago, a group of housewives in Britain decided to form a Name Register, through which homemakers could meet to discuss mutual interests, participate in social and cultural events, and pursue study projects. Their idea was a success - to say the least - and there are over 800 such groups in Britain today!
So popular was the concept of a Name Register, that the movement soon went International. Besides the very substantial membership of over 20,000 women in Britain, there are now groups in fourteen countries, including: Australia, New Zealand, Spain, Norway, Hong Kong, Denmark, Belgium, South Africa, and Canada.
The Canadian Register was started nine years ago, in Montreal. There are now over 25 groups in Quebec, Ontario, British Colombia, and - the most recent addition -- Newfoundland. We.- the St. John's group - call ourselves "Women In Touch" - a name borrowed from the Australian Registers and one which we feel best describes our aims and objectives.
Like our foreign and National counterparts, we meet in small groups, informally in one anothers homes. All groups adhere to one basic rule - "No Domestic Discussions Allowed!" Activities and topics of discussions are flexible, extremely varied and geared to the particular interests of the group. We also bring in guest speakers when desired, to add their expertise, and stimulate our thinking.
Interested? I certainly hope so! Women in Touch is open to all women and we'd love to hear from you:
For further information please phone Heather Fawcett, 368-2311.
CANADIAN RESEARCH INSTITUTE FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF WOMEN
On April 8 & 9th, a Conference was held in Ottawa, sponsored by the Social Sciences Research Council. The purpose of this conference was to bring to fruition a dream of one women (sic) — that dream? - a research institute for study on the advancement of women in our society. Through the financial assistance of the Secretary of State and the Department of Health & Welfare, the founding meeting for this Institute and discussion as to whether or not we needed such an institute was held.
Representation came from all over Canada — from Victoria to St. John's. Women from academia; women from the labour force; civil servants; women active in human rights etc. — a wide representation from society—at—large.
Two days of intense discussion were held. — a proposed constitution; how to publicize findings of the Institute; what would or should be the Institute's main objectives and how to go about attaining these objectives.
Finally, on the second day, the vote was put to the 55 participants --- Institute or no institute? A unanimous yes! It was then decided to have one representative from each Province and the Territories on the Board of Directors with eight other members—at—large. This done, a democratic vote was held and the Board elected.
The objective, in brief, is that the Institute shall be to enable women to contribute to Canadian Society more fully by fostering and supporting a fuller understanding of women's experience and role in Canadian history and contemporary society. This would be done by (a) Initiate and undertake research as well as encourage, facilitate and assist funding of research aimed at producing a fuller understanding of women's experience; (b) critically review policies or policy areas of particular importance to women or to a better understanding of their experience and bring the findings to the attention of the public and of governments; (c) undertake publications to diffuse knowledge of women's experience widely among Canadian public, and to facilitate communication among researchers and others active in the field; (d) encourage and engage in education and training activities aimed at creating greater awareness and knowledge of women's experience among university, worker and other selected groups; and (e) encourage through scholarships, study and training in the field of women's experience and aid in the entry and re-entry of women into all fields and levels of endeavour.
At present there are no funds. The representatives from the Provinces will aid the Executive Committee in locating funding agencies, private foundations, etc. and will solicit their aid in funding the Institute. Where possible private funding is preferable. The membership fee for individuals is set at $10.00.
and can be forwarded to: Jan Loubser, Social Sciences Research Council, 151 Slater St., Ottawa, Ontario. Donations should be sent to the same address but by separate cheque.
The name "Canadian Research Institute for the Advancement of Women" is provincial. "Within the next six months a permanent name will be decided upon. Any suggestions for a name that you have can be forwarded to Marian Atkinson.
Marian has been appointed to the Board for a period of two years. This is the first Institute of its kind in Canada - a National Research Institute which will study and compile research already completed; will eventually initiate its own research and which will disseminate this information to the general public. The Board of Directors consists of:
Pauline Jewett (President) - British Columbia
Muriel Duckworth (Treasurer) - Nova Scotia
Naomi Griffiths (Vice-President) – Ontario
Simard Savoie (Secretary) - Quebec
Beverly Stetson (P.E.I.)
Blanche Bourgeois (N.B.)
Mary Two Axe Early (Que.)
Jan Loubser (Ont.)
Margret Andersen (Ont.)
Jean Manzies (Man.)
Tilly Taylor (Sask.)
Dorothy Richardson (Alberta)
Rosemary Brown (B.C.)
Susan Trofimenkoff (Ont.)
Claire L'Heureux-Dube (Quebec)
Marian Atkinson (Nfld.)
plus two women from Yukon & N.W.T. to be elected
con' d from page……….. 6
each feminist will have to find the particular way to function that suits her best.
A follow-up article on the future possibilities for the Women's movement in Canada well worth reading is the article entitled "Militantly impotent: Has the women's movement come to this?" in Branching Out, April-June 1976. This magazine needs your support with subscriptions and articles. JOIN THE DISCUSSION GROUP IF YOU HAVEN'T ALREADY:
Law Reform Commission in favour of one ground for divorce
ET May 5/76
By JULIET O'NEILL
OTTAWA (CP) — Family law and the court system that deals it out is "one of Canada's great self-inflicted wounds" that should be replaced, the Law Reform Commission of Canada said in a report tabled in the Commons Tuesday.
“The legal approach to the family in difficulty should be humane and where possible, healing," the commission said in a 70-page report with 26 recommendations.
The recommendations now go to the justice department for study.
Intent on giving people an alternative to an adversary legal system which just creates winners and losers, the commission makes four main recommendations.
To embrace the jobs of four or five current courts which deal with family legal problems it recommends the establishment of a unified family court with a social and a legal arm.
The court would encourage and provide resources to people to solve family disputes, such as divorce, through conciliation, negotiation or counselling.
Its judicial arm would make final decisions on legal rights and obligations—such as property settlements in a divorce case, for example only when the couple could not work it out on their own.
The commission also recommends that such grounds for divorce as cruelty or adultery, be tossed out.
The only grounds for divorce should be marriage breakdown, established by the testimony of one spouse, and without the requirement of separation for three or five years.
"In its search to attach the blame, the law fixes on a handful of occurrences that are overt, while the events of real significance to the success or failure of a marriage almost invariably remain hidden in the psychological interaction between the spouses," the commission said.
Under such a system, neither spouse would have to defend his or her interests by attacking the other. Neither would be threatened with disadvantage for inappropriate behaviour (sic).
When a couple wanted to dissolve a marriage, one or both would file with the court a notice of intent to seek a dissolution and at least six months later, one would apply for disoolution (sic).
If they agreed on a property and maintenance settlement and the fate of their children and can establish marriage breakdown at a hearing of the family court through evidence of at least one spouse, the marriage would be dissolved.
If the couple could not agree on legal settlement, the court could do so.
A ROMAN DIVORCES FROM HIS WIFE, BEING HIGHLY BLAMED BY HIS FRIENDS, WHO DEMANDED,
“WAS SHE NOT CHASTE? WAS SHE NOT FAIR? WAS SHE NOT FRUITFUL?” HOLDING OUT HIS SHOE, ASKED THEM WHETHER IT WAS NOT NEW, AND WELL MADE.
“YET,” HE ADDED, “NONE OF YOU CAN TELL WHERE IT PINCHES ME.”
Ibid. Aemilius Paulus, page 322.
THE MISSING HALF
The following is quoted from The Missing Half, a contribution to International Women's Year by The Information Division of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
WOMEN'S EQUALITY: A REAL PROBLEM
Interest in the status of women is no mere passing fashion. It is a real and abiding issue, and it is by no means confined to the upper middle class where it generally began. It is also deeply relevant to the women of the developing countries — the same women who so frequently took part in the battle for independence side by side with their men. Today we are trying to break the spell which seemed to condemn half of humanity to a prison walled around by their sex and relegate them to the margins of history and progress. No one expects miracles to result from the International Women's Year. But what is possible — and indeed, probably — is that we will witness the birth of a new solidarity and sense of common interest among women throughout the world. From now on, it will be impossible to assess policies and their results solely in terms of their impact on the male and on the female parts of the country, for these are categories with their different positions, conditions and roles.
DEVELOPMENT FOR WHOM?
Women tend to be left out of development. Contrary to general belief, economic and social development does not necessarily lead to an improvement in women's condition, just as it does not necessarily lead to an improvement in the lot of the poorer segments of the population. On the contrary, evidence that development projects often accentuate social disparities has recently induced the World Bank and other development agencies to examine, not only the economic feasibility of development projects and policies, but also their impact on the various social classes. And the same re-examination (sic) is under way for that other underprivileged group — women. When they are not given due consideration, discrepancies in prestige and social power, as well as in productive function and economic importance, far from being attenuated, are likely to be increased. It is fully realized that the great majority of the population in developing countries lead a cheerless life. But the lot of the woman is usually even harder than the man's. If this point alone can be driven home to the world's conscience, the studies, meetings and efforts of the International Women's Year will be more than justified.
Thus, she finds that today, on awakening to her inferior status and to the need to end it, she lacks even the minimum tools necessary to articulate the problem in terms of man's culture, his history, his sociology, and his economic science. It is time to redress an age-old wrong.
THE LOWEST TIER OF INFERNO
Those theologians of the modem world, the economists, place rural women in the developing regions in the lowest tier of the bottom circle of their Inferno.
The women, for one thing, live in countries which were for years under foreign rule, were little more than smudges on the map for people in advanced areas and played almost no part in the technological upheaval which generated the industrial civilization as we now know it. This means that, with few exceptions, they are poor and backward, and are being hard put to it to keep up with the accelerating pace of technical progress.
Secondly, rural women live far from the new centres of political power where decisions are taken — the towns. Like their men, they are scattered over a large area in small and sometimes isolated holdings. Rural people in general therefore tend to have little influence over national and regional policies. Which is why the prices of staple foods are kept low for townsmen, often at the expense of the farmers who live on selling the food. Not only are incomes higher in towns than in the countryside, but as a rule the gap is tending to widen. Townspeople have access to a wide range of facilities which are only a mirage to their rural counterparts — medical, educational and social, not to mention running clean water, public transport and shops. Rural women share with their menfolks (sic) all these drawbacks. But, in addition, they have a whole series of burdens which they have to bear alone.
To put the same point another way, as men are usually the decision-makers in rural societies, there is a tendency for activities performed by them to be modernized in preference to women's. Women are therefore, as will be shown in greater detail below, being more and more isolated from the path of technological progress and confined to a marginal role. Which means a loss of status, income and independence.
Nor is this the end of the story. Where women work, they also have to look after the family. For rural women in developing countries, life is a gruelling affair. Family planning, labour-saving devices, any kind of amenities have usually barely been heard of. Despite her physical limitatations, frequent pregnancies and often chronic mal and under-nutrition, she has to perform most of the exhausting and time-consuming unskilled tasks involved in running an unmechanized (sic) agriculture (including casual labour and transport of the cash crops for the men). She fetches water from distant wells, collects and carries heavy loads of firewood and performs the tiring chore of pounding rice and palm fruit, as well as cooking on primitive hearths and looking after the children. Their education is largely in her hands. Yet she herself is almost always illiterate. As for vocational training, she rarely knows what is (sic) means. In certain regions, indeed, she has to run the household and farm all by herself since, in as many as two-thirds of the families, the men are away working in the city (at least during the offseason [sic]) or abroad, or simply take no interest in work.
Naturally enough woman's productivity in farming is low, since, as already explained, she has no training or modern equipment and inputs, and her vigour is often impaired. Conversely, she can hardly devote as much care as might be desirable to her household tasks. She is always restricted in her movements and sometimes segregated. Her labours, too, are not rewarded. Her rights to own property or retain her earnings are not guaranteed either by law or custom. Her life expectancy is for all these reasons lower than man's. And, unkindest cut of all, her status is consistently lower. She is, in varying but substantial degrees, excluded from decision-making either in the home or the community. Discrimination, in short, pervades the whole fabric of her existence.
If rural women were to lose their present foothold in agriculture and other out-of-the-household activities altogether, their battle for equal rights would become much longer and harder than it is almost certainly bound to be. The solution is not to drive them out of productive work, but to permit them to improve their productivity and lessen the time and strain involved.
In fact, the proportion of rural women at work is a vital if crude indicator of the seriousness of the problems facing developers in different parts of the world. First of all, the global figures. On a rough estimate, rural women in the developing world number about 1,000 million, and out of this total it is believed that about half are gainfully employed, mostly in agriculture. The position is complicated by a number of technicalities. Thus, the rural population and the number of those engaged in agriculture do not coincide. For one thing, some people in the towns are recorded as working in agriculture. There is really only one ratio which, despite all the statistical pitfalls, is significant in the present analysis, and that is the proportion of women engaged in agriculture to the total labour force, both male and female. The few such data available are for 1970 or just before. These show, at the one extreme, countries in (or similar to) the Middle East and in Latin America, and, at the other, African countries south of the Sahara. In the former, to which can be added Algeria and Bangladesh where women's participation is almost zero, the proportion is negligible. For Iran, it is eight. In the latter (i.e. the African countries), women make up about 70 per cent of the rural labour force and do at least 60 per cent of the agricultural work. In between come the countries in Southeast Asia where women have a relatively high status regardless of the prevailing religion.
If sociologists such as Briffault are to be believed, the roots of the present trouble are economic. Women, he says, invented agriculture at the dawn of history when their men were out hunting, and thus acquired a dominant position in the community, as is reflected in the fertility goddesses of primitive religions and the high status of women in pre-Hellenic Crete and pre-Roman Etruria. It was the evolution of simple agriculture into pastoral gazing. (especially in Arabia and the nearby countries) and the invention of the metal plough which reversed the earlier roles of man and woman. Southeast Asia never knew either of these innovations, and new religions have swept over the area without basically altering the original pattern.
SEX ROLES: THE ROOTS OF DISCRIMINATION
The roots of this general discrimination go far back in history. Woman has not always been cast in an inferior role. But for thousands of years woman has been marked by a stigma. The birth of a female is often viewed as a disaster, but the birth of a male child is cause for joy in all cultures. Certain cultures, for example, will sacrifice a lamb on the birth of a male. All the rites marking the stages of life stress the difference between the sexes. And these constraints are specially severe in many rural societies. The female child in these communities is prepared for marriage from the very beginning of her life. Often she is "passed on" to her new master by her father even before puberty. In vast areas many girls are still married before they are fifteen. Neither the girl nor her mother has any say in the matter. Certain religions, for their part, confirm this relegation of the woman to her role of wife and mother, and actively discourage her participation in life outside the restricted circle of the family. However, religions change with the times. If they have embodied the male-dominated customs of their age, and sometimes absorbed attitudes foreign to their spirit, movements are now afoot to strip off those elements which are time-conditioned and to move into line with the modern age and its needs.
It could hardly be otherwise. The great winds of change that have swept the world in recent decades have not left women's situation unaffected. In particular, many countries, after the struggle to liberate themselves from colonialism and reassert their national character, have engaged in a new war against backward and paralysing traditions, such as the inferior role accorded to women. However, though the struggle for greater equality of the sexes is reflected, for example, in the legislation of many of these countries, the new laws still have to be enforced in the face of outmoded customs and usages.
Women are even discriminated against when it comes to statistical data. There is a significant lack of social and economic information about more than half of the human race, and what there is clearly demonstrates the inferior role assigned to it.
The female half of humanity has thus suffered much the same fate as the poorest countries of the world. They are simply too impoverished and too disorganized to produce statistics which are reliable and adequate. The situation of the woman is no different.
Her inferiority has been taken for granted as natural and immutable for so long that her marginality has been neither recorded nor measured, nor have the changes in her status obtained with the passage of time or by new political regimes. She has been excluded from history, which has always been "his"tory — the history of men, and actually not of all men but only of a geographical, social, and economic minority.
RURAL WOMEN AND "MODERNIZATION"
It is often assumed that, by a gradual process of osmosis, modern technology will spread from the towns to the countryside, and thus revoluntionize (sic) agriculture as it has done in, for example, Europe.
And there is no doubt that some of the new ideas have rubbed off on the rural area. The expansion of agricultural production for the market (largely in response to urbanization) opens up new possibilities for employment for women. The dairy industry, market gardening (with both fruit and vegetables) and poultry-keeping are all fields where they have found new outlets, and, in rubber, palm oil or coffee plantations, a large proportion of the labour employed is composed of women (usually paid at lower rates than the men).
However, there are frequent cases where diversification increases the woman's workload. In one African country, poultry schemes were introduced, but no arrangements were made to provide extra water. The result was that the task of fetching extra water (25 litres a day for 100 chickens) fell — literally — on the women's shoulders.
In the same way, mechanization, such as the provision of transport, in the field or in the home, can and does lighten the strain on women caused by backbreaking physical toil. But improvements affecting women have been few and far between, and often been introduced by women's groups. Resources are meagre, and priority is given to measures affecting the men's work. Facilities for the women have been confined to a few instances where carts were provided to transport firewood, wells or water points were created near the home, filters installed, kerosene stoves replaced wood fires, and power-driven oil mills were installed. Even then, little attempt was made to integrate technical and mechanical innovations with both men's and women's tasks.
But the heart of the matter is elsewhere. New techniques require either greater strength (as in the case of the plough), contact with the outside commercial and technical world (which is largely confined to men by tradition), or a higher level of knowhow (sic) (which is a male monopoly because of the bias of the training system). Thus, the new inputs such as better seeds are channelled exclusively to the sector which has always been the man's domain — cash crops. The result is that, as that sector inevitably expands, the gap between the levels of male and female technology increases and women are relegated to the marginal role of unskilled labourers on their food plots.
By development is meant the conscious drive to improve the economic and social lot of people in developing countries.
Development and modernization often converge and overlap, but the broad distinction between the spontaneous and the controlled process is fairly clear.
As has often been emphasized in documents of the United Nations agencies, most projects have been planned, formulated or implemented, with scant regard for the employment of women or their production or income. Inadequate attention has generally been paid to
the fact that, in many of the projects, women make up a significant proportion of the labour force. The result has been that the development potential of the project has not been fully realized nor the status of women or their contribution to development been substantially enhanced.
If improvements are to be achieved in rural women's involvemnt (sic) in development, reform must begin at home, that is, in the development agencies themselves. For one thing, higher priority should be given to funds for women's programmes. They all too often tend to be cut in times of stringency.
But the main issue is one of personnel. Most technical assistance experts in the field are men, except for the "feminine" or "reserved" domain of home economics, and they tend to approach the question of women's involvement both in the giving and receiving of assistance as requiring only hasty, marginal or formal consideration. In short, the first people needing to be developed are the developers themselves.
EDUCATION AND TRAINING
Education and training, both formal and informal, are among the critical factors influencing the effectiveness of women's participation in rural development. In almost all of the developing countries, females constitute the majority of the illiterate population.
The education of girls is hampered by a number of factors — a shortage of educational facilities and of teaching staff, the heavy financial cost of schooling, even when it is formally free, but also the high value placed upon education, which makes it incompatible with the traditional expectations of adult female roles. The inability of many developing countries to extend education to all children has therefore meant that girls have been the first to suffer.
In the rural areas of developing countries, early dropouts are frequent among the few girls who do enter the first level of education. Partly, this is because of early marriage or pregnancy, and partly because the girls have to assume exacting responsibilities in the family or on the farm. In many countries, the culture requires girls to begin working at home when they are only six. They perform a variety of domestic chores, such as taking care of their younger brothers and sisters, drawing water for the famly's (sic) needs and gathering and carrying wood.
The vocational and technical training of girls and women is even more neglected than their general education. So far, only their social roles have received full recognition in training programmes specifically intended for women. Most of the vocational courses offered to girls and women are, in fact, in fields such as sewing, housecraft, cooking and embroidery, which are seldom utilizable in the labour market.
Programmes of rural improvement, extension work and services are still mainly designed for men. For example, animal husbandry and dairy processing usually rely on women's labour. Yet very little endeavour has been made to teach women and girls the technology of dairy processing. It is reported, for instance, that, of several thousand dairy diplomas so far awarded in India, only a few have been granted
to women, and this notwithstanding the fact that the considerable progress in dairy farming which has taken place in the district of Anand is credited to the inclusion of women in local cooperatives and their subsequent training in the processing and storing of milk and milk products.
It is important, however, that women's rights and interests are safeguarded in this complex transitional process. There is a real danger that women's work and roles may be changed for the worse, especially where (as in Africa) women have been growing their own crops on tribal lands and private ownership is introduced and title given to the man as head of the family. In such cases, women are no longer able to earn money by selling their crops in the markets and to cultivate the land on their own account in the event of divorce or widowhood. The first steps in ensuring that women's rights in land settlement schemes are protected are now being taken.
But agrarian reform is not enough. Women's status will only be really changed if an effective full employment policy ensures an equitable distribution of income and pubic (sic) amenities between town and country and an intense demand for the woman's productive potential outside the home, and, in consequence, an up-valuing of her labour in it as well.
WOMEN — THE CRUCIAL FACTOR
Complete development is only possible once women become liberated from their traditional domestic tasks, and are permitted to play an important role in society, particularly in the labour market. Women's participation in development should not, however, be considered solely in terms of their contribution to the society and the economy. It is a goal in its own right. The integration of women in the social, economic and political life of their community enhances women's personal destiny.
Women, therefore, even while engaged in a struggle against underdevelopment, must become aware of the contradictions peculiar to their lives and take action to remove these contradictions at the same time in order to realize fully their abilities and potentialities. Only then can a woman herself become a force for bold, dynamic innovation.
Development, it has been said, is indivisible. But it is equally important to stress that development is total, or it is ineffective. Only if the cause of women is woven into the overall cause of progress can development have its full impact.
Rape trial procedure changes will encourage more reports
Daily News May 11th, 1976
Justice minister T. Alex Hickman believes recent changes in rape trial procedure will encourage women to report to police if they have been sexually assaulted.
Under new federal law, which came into effect a week ago, a defence lawyer can no longer cross-examine the victim about her past conduct and general character — a procedure that in the past often made it appear the victim was on trial, not the person accused of rape.
Mr. Hickman said statistics have shown a certain reluctance on the part of women to report rape because they expected an ordeal in court.
The new law also declares a judge must, upon application, prohibit publication of the identity of the rape victim.
Mr. Hickman agreed with this aspect. He charged that publication of the name served only to satisfy "idle curiousity (sic)."
"Non publication of the name does not constitute witholding of the news," he pointed out. "The facts of the trial can come out without using the name."
Prior to the new law, rape trials were different from any other type of trial because judges had to warn juries of the danger of convicting the accused if the victim's story wasn't corroborated. As an automatic requirement, this has been repealed.
Mr. Hickman said this means the same standard of proof, proof beyond a reasonable doubt, is applied as for any other type of trial.
MALES AND RAPE
Most of those who have committed rape are probably influenced by society's view of the dominant male in sexual relationships.
If we want in any way to reduce or eliminate rape, we have to change firstly society's attitude and general presumption that males are continually supposed to dominate a woman's sexual life. The fact is that some men think they can dominate any woman's sexual life whether she be stranger or marital partner. And he feels that he may even experience sex by physical force, feeling that nothing is morally wrong with this force – mainly because of the dominant male role in sex and other related areas assigned to him by society.
We all remember the old saying that the man "wears the pants". This idea is quite prevalent and flourishing in our society, The idea that the man is boss and generally controls, is an idea that is practically imbued in all man as part of their masculinity.
As regards to rape, no rapist is put down by another man ever in the trial - so indoctrinated are so many males. In a rape trial recently the girl was asked by the judge if she had enjoyed being sexually violated. This shows that some males no matter what their position, pursue the same line of thought, that the male merely has done what society expected of him – taking the dominant role. It seems in that particular case that the female was guilty of being around at the time that the man (as society dictates) wished to assert his 'masculinity’.
A project of The Council for Canadian Unity, CANADA WEEK is a concerted effort by a large group of people, in all provinces, to stimulate pride in our nation. Once a year, during the week that leads up to our national holiday, July 1st, we are asked to think about this country and to reflect upon its achievements and its future. Canada Week is proclaimed each year by the Prime Minister of Canada, provincial Premiers and the councils of more than 1,000 Canadian communities. Now in its eighth year, this special Week involves an ever-increasing number of Canadians in activities that range from entertaining to educational. The feeling of pride in our past achievements and faith in a promising future animates the many projects now being planned for CANADA WEEK this year. Ranging from picnics to band concerts to sports events, from film festivals to art and essay-contests, from parades to historical pageants from business promotions of Canadian Goods to private displays of Canadiana, Thousands of citizens in all provinces manifest their desire for community of spirit, of values and of ideas. With concern for their fellow man as a basic promise, CANADA WEEK hopes to act as a catalyst to bring the people of this vast country closer together so that we may realize how our linguistic, political and regional particularities can be used to unite rather than divide. In his official proclamation of CANADA WEEK, Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau said that CANADA WEEK "is a time to celebrate once more that direction towards realizing the great potential for good that lies in our land." This is the rationale for CANADA-WEEK, not blind patriotism, but respect and reflection; respect for all the diverse elements that make up this community of people and reflection about the institutions that have enabled them to live in harmony.
Canada Week is a project of the Council for Canadian Unity.
CANADA - WE LOVE IT!
By Melva Weber
Birth-control switchback …
BIRTH CONTROL: THE DIAPHRAGM COMES BACK
Major contraceptive mode of the '30's and '40's (it all started back in the '20's), the vaginal diaphragm is again being used by increasing numbers of women, including those abandoning the Pill and the IUD.
At University of California Hospital in San Francisco, Dr. Sadja Goldsmith, clinical instructor in obstetrics and gynecology, has noted the return of the diaphragm. "Definitely," she said, "there is a trend back to use of the diaphragm. It began several years ago among women who suffered side effects with oral contraceptives. It has mounted in the last two years as reports have increased on risks in using the Pill and the IUD." Young women just entering sexual life are likely to use the Pill as a start, Dr. Goldsmith said; but many of them switch to the diaphragm as they become less embarrassed with their bodies, gain confidence, and acquire informed and understanding partners.
Increasingly sophisticated about sex, women are changing from Pill or IUD to vaginal diaphragm, for safety's sake or for control of their own bodies
At Planned Parenthood's clinic in New Haven, Connecticut, Betty Bradbury, R.N. and certified nurse-midwife, said demand for the diaphragm is growing. A short time back, only about 4 percent of birth-control requests were for the diaphragm, about 11 percent for the IUD, and the rest for the Pill. Now, diaphragm requests amount to 11 per-cent among women applying for contraceptive services at the clinic. The 1975 report from Planned Parenthood of Metropolitan Washington, D.C., showed increasing rates of diaphragm requests throughout the year—from 5 percent to 12.6 percent.
Manufacturers of the major share of diaphragms sold in the United States guardedly have admitted an increase in sales. The big trend hasn't been measured yet, all sides agree; but the ground swell indicates it's coming.
Judith Wortman, R.N., writing in Population Reports, has pointed out some of the advantages of the diaphragm: It's effective when properly used; it's safe, doesn't affect the body chemically or physically; the user controls the device, can use it when she wants to, can use it during menstruation; the spermicide creme used with the diaphragm provides extra lubrication during intercourse.
No matter what you may have heard, Nurse Bradbury insisted that the diaphragm is not a hassle, not messy, not difficult to insert or to remove. These problems can be avoided if you learn to use your diaphragm with the help of a skilled and patient teacher. Nurse-practitioners and other medical aides are increasingly taking over diaphragm fittings and instruction, when the physician's time is limited. And many women prefer to take lessons in inserting and removing the diaphragm from another woman.
Experts who frankly favor the diaphragm's use say that the high "failure rates” sometimes attributed to this birth-control method represent people failures, not diaphragm failures. Women forget or neglect to use the device, or fail to insert it properly.
Does the diaphragm spoil the spontaneity of lovemaking? There's no need to dash for the bathroom to put in your diaphragm just before coitus—although having it in place at the proper time does involve a certain amount of premeditation. You can insert your diaphragm as part of a daily or nightly routine, says Ms. Bradbury, just like toothbrushing (sic). In fact, you can leave it in place indefinitely without harm. And you must leave it in place for eight hours following intercourse.
Dr. Goldsmith observed that, in her practice, diaphragm users have less vaginitis, fewer infections such as trichomoniasis or candidiasis. A possible explanation: Cremes used with the diaphragm are mildly acid, provide a chemical environment that discourages the growth of invading organisms. Dr. Goldsmith has found healthier vaginal tissues in women using the diaphragm, "though," she said, "without more research we can't he sure we are comparing equal populations."
The Canadian Nurse March 1976
The views expressed in the articles are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the policies of the Canadian Nurses' Association.
A guide to drug use during breast-feeding
BABIES AT RISK
In recent years women have increasingly chosen to breast-feed their offspring with the result that a growing number of babies have become the passive recipients of drugs, prescribed or otherwise. To date, however, little research has been done on the presence of drugs in breast milk and their effect on the young recipients. Although it is generally agreed that any substance taken by the lactating mother will, to some extent, be found in her milk, not enough is known of the necessary precautions or the amounts that may have a harmful effect on the baby.
When he has to prescribe drugs to the lactating mother, the doctor must weigh the drug's benefits and the need for the drug against the known and unknown risks to the child. In many cases, risks may be reduced if careful consideration is given to the choice of drug and the explanation given the mother. If possible side effects in the mother and baby are also taken into account, risks are even further reduced.
The nurse who is in contact with mothers who breast-feed their babies must be familiar with types of drugs that may cause problems and are, therefore, to be avoided. She should also know certain principles considered by doctors in prescribing drugs to these women.
Some of these factors include:
1 Type of drug: some drugs are excreted in the mother's milk in greater quantities than others.
2 Dosage: the baby's age as well as the quantity of milk consumed daily must be considered.
3 Duration of drug treatment.
4 Method and timing of administration in relation to the baby's feedings: a smaller quantity of the drug will be found in the milk if medication has been taken immediately after the previous feeding.
5 Cumulative effects of the drug.
6 Development of the baby's organs: immaturity of hepatic and renal functions may decrease the excretion or inactivation of drugs and thus increase the concentration of a drug in the infant's bloodstream.
7 Hypersensitivity of the infant.
8 Possible secondary effects on the mother's behavior, for example, drowsiness.
9 Possible secondary effects on the quantity of milk. Oral contraceptives, for example, are known to influence the milk supply.
Many drugs taken by the mother affect her breast-fed baby. The list that follows is based on the most recent medical literature, but only the most common drugs are mentioned. Information on a variety of less common drugs may be found in the references cited in this article.
These are the most commonly used drugs. Occasional therapeutic doses generally affect neither the quantity of milk produced nor the baby. However, mothers who take large doses for prolonged periods (for example, mothers being treated for rheumatoid arthritis) have not been studied and, consequently, data on these women are not available.1
Aspirin appears in the mother's milk in moderate quantities. It may produce a tendency to bleed either by a decrease in the quantity of prothrombin in the baby's blood or by interfering with the function of blood platelets.2
Codeine does not significantly affect the baby when taken in therapeutic doses.3
Heroin appears in relatively high concentration in the breast milk when the mother is addicted to the drug.3 Thus, it will prevent withdrawal symptoms in the newborn addict.
Meperidine (Demerol) has an insignificant effect when taken in therapeutic doses.
Morphine has little effect when taken in therapeutic doses.3 However, it is found in sufficient concentration in the milk of an addicted mother to prevent withdrawal symptoms in the breast-fed infant.
Nisentil has a sedative effect on the infant when taken in therapeutic doses.
Darvon has little effect on the baby when taken in therapeutic doses.3
These drugs are rarely absorbed in appreciable amounts and should present no problem unless the mother develops an electrolytic imbalance.
These drugs may inhibit formation of bone marrow in the baby. They should be a contraindication to breast-feeding.2 Antimetabolites (methotrexate, mercaptopurine) may be secreted in the milk and breast-feeding should be avoided.
Oral anticoagulants should be avoided because they have not been sufficiently studied. They have been reported as causing severe bleeding in the infant 2/4. For other anticoagulants, both mother and baby must be watched very carefully in order to avoid hematomes and hemmorhage in the baby.
These drugs are often taken to alleviate colds and allergies. They generally reduce the production of milk, but this is not always noticeable if the drug is taken intermittently and in small quantities. They lead to vasoconstriction in the mother and limit the quantity of oxytocin reaching the breasts. The decrease in milk supply may be minimized if the mother's intake of fluids is greatly increased. Benadryl has a more marked effect than Chlor-Tripolon which, of the whole group, has least effect on the production of milk.
Antimicrobial Agents and Antibiotics
Studies have shown that these drugs pass into the mother's milk in small concentrations. In addition, the presence of these substances in the mother's milk may alter the baby's intestinal flora; normal intestinal flora are important in the early development of immunities.1,2,3
Ampicillin is secreted in milk and may cause allergy and/or diarrhea.
What are the known and unknown effects on the breast-fed baby of drugs consumed by the nursing mother?
Chloromycetin may cause the "gray syndrome" in the newborn and may also damage the bone marrow.2
Erythromycin, although secreted in milk, may be used, but may cause allergy to the drug.
Kanamycin requires the baby to be watched carefully for signs of toxicity.4
Penicillin is secreted in milk, but may be used. However kernicterus may develop in the newborn.
Streptomycin is secreted in milk. It may be used but may cause toxicity.5
Sulfonamides (sic) may cause kernicterus in the newborn 3 and also hemolytic anemia.2
Sulfapyridine has caused cutaneous eruptions.4
Sulfathiazole may be used in therapeutic doses.4
Gantrisin may cause kernicterus in the newborn and should be avoided during the first two weeks postpartum.4
Tetracyclines may cause dental stains in the baby and retard bone growth.2
Recent research seems to indicate that smaller doses of oral contraceptives do not significantly affect lactation in the majority of women, once the supply of milk is well established (6-8 weeks). If the mother has initial difficulty in establishing a good milk supply for her baby, even small doses of oral contraceptives may add to her problems.
Large doses of oral contraceptives suppress lactation and even usual doses can decrease the milk supply. The immediate and long-term effects of oral contraceptives on the baby are not known. Other methods of contraception should therefore be encouraged during the entire period of lactation.5
These appear in milk and may hinder growth, interfere with the endogenous production of corticosteroids, or cause other undesirable effects. Breast-feeding should be discouraged.2
These drugs should be used with caution during breast-feeding. No secondary effects have been reported in the literature cited here, but diuretics seem to inhibit lactation by dehydrating the woman. Diuril may cause thrombocytopenia in the baby.2
Hyponotics (sic) and Tranquilizers
Several sleep-inducing drugs contain bromides. Such drugs should not be taken as the baby's reaction to them may vary from cutaneous eruptions to drowsiness.3 Chlordiazepoxide (Librium) may be used in therapeutic doses.5
Chloral hydrate may have some sedative effect on the baby, but may be used in therapeutic doses.3 4
Chlorpromazine is secreted in the mother's milk but no effect was found in babies even with large doses. It may cause galactorrhea.5
Diazepam (Valium) in large doses sedates the baby.2 It may cause hyperbilirubinemia and its use is not recommended during lactation.5
Meprobamate (Miltown, Equanil) requires that the baby be watched carefully for signs of toxicity.5
Phenobarbital has a sedative effect on babies with hypnotic doses of 100 mg. It is possible that there is no effect with sedative doses (30 mg t.i.d.).2 It may als affect the endogenous production of corticosteroids in the baby or have other undesirable effects.2
Secobarbital Sodium (Seconal) has no effect on the baby with sedative doses;
however, there may be some effect with hypnotic doses.
The forms that are not absorbed, such as castor oil, Dulcolax, mineral oil, and standardized senna concentrate (DSS) do not cause any problems.
Cascara causes increased intestinal activity in the baby with habitual doses.
Rhubarb has no ill effects when taken in small quantities but large doses increase intestinal activity in the baby.
Senokot and Doxidan can cause loose stools in a baby.
Drugs Affecting Endocrine Glands
Thyroid preparations are not harmful to the baby when the mother takes them in habitual doses. It is believed that they sometimes increase the amount of milk produced.
Radioiodine is passed into the mother's milk in large quantities and may significantly suppress thyroid function in the baby.3
Propylthiouracil and thiouracil 3 5 have effects similar to radioiodine. However concentrations of thiouracil in the mother's milk are higher than in the urine or blood and may cause goiter in the baby or agranulocytosis.4
Drugs Affecting the Autonomic Nervous System
Atropine may reduce the amount of milk produced when large doses are taken; it is not secreted in appreciable amounts in the milk. It may cause atropine poisoning in the baby.2 3
Ergot (Cafergot) may cause various symptoms in the baby, from vomiting and diarrhea to a weak pulse and unstable blood pressure.3 4
Stimulants, depressants, narcotics, and psychedelics have not been studied in relation to breast-feeding. They are believed to be secreted in the milk in appreciable quantities and should not be used.
Alcohol if used moderately, has no harmful effect on the baby. Large quantities may
cause sedation in the baby or inhibit the milk secreting reflex in the mother.2 3 5 6 Certain foods have been found to cause allergic reactions in the baby: white beans, Indian corn, egg white, chocolate, seafood, peanuts, wheat, and gherkins.3
Methadone is not passed in significant quantities to the breast-fed baby whose mother takes a daily dose of this drug.
Tobacco (nicotine) affects the baby if the mother smokes heavily. Effects may vary from diarrhea, vomiting, and tachycardia to agitation.5
Vitamins that are fat soluble must not be taken in large doses. One study reported anomalies in the baby when the mother had taken large doses of Vitamin D during pregnancy. Vitamin D may also cause hypercalcemia.4 7
Because so many factors are involved in choosing drugs for the lactating mother, and because so little conclusive research has been done in this area, it is difficult for the doctor to advise the mother. In general, the best advice would seem to be to avoid the use of drugs if at all possible.
1 Catz, C.S. Drugs and breast milk, by . . . and G.P. Giacoia. Pediatr. Clin. North Am. 19:151-166, Feb. 1972.
2 Drugs in breast milk. Med. Letter Drugs Ther. 16:6:25-27, Mar. 15, 1974.
3 Knowles, J.A. Excretion of drugs in milk-a review. J. Pediatr. 66:1068-1082, Jun. 1965.
4 O'Brien, Thomas E. Excretion of drugs in human milk. Am. J. Hosp. Pharm. 31:9:844-854. Sep. 1974.
5 Arena, J.M. Contamination of the ideal food. Nutrition Today 5:4:2-8, Winter 1970.
6 Cobo, E. Effect of different doses of ethanol on the milk-ejecting reflex in lactating women. Am. J. Obstet, Gynecol. 115:817-821, Mar. 15, 1973.
7 Goldberg, L.D. Transmission of a vitamin-D metabolite in breast milk. Lancet 2:1258-1259, Dec. 9, 1972.
Women's Centre Calvert
P.O. Box 6072 Southern Shore
St John's May 7, 1976.
Thank you so much for the write-up on our L.I.P. project which appeared in your magazine and also for the copy of your magazine. It's the only publicity we've received.
To show our appreciation we are enclosing money for a subscription.
We hope you will be able to visit us again before our project closes on May 28th.
Mary Ellen Kavanagh
The Women at Calvert Community Centre.
TheRoad To Equality
It's a long, long road we have travelled,
Many Mysteries we've unravelled.
We've come a long, long way
To where we are today.
Now we realize what we can be,
New horizons we've begun to see.
We have our goal in sight
And for this we will fight.
Until our equality is won,
We won't falter now that we've begun.
We'll be proud, strong and true
To see our causes through.
So stand up, sisters every one,
And be proud of what we have begun.
For what we believe in,
Together we will win.
To: ALL PERSONNEL From: TREASURY BOARD
Re: EARLY RETIREMENT PROGRAM (LIP PROJECT)
As a result of automation as well as declining workload, the government must, of necessity, take steps to reduce the work force. A reduction—in—force plan has been developed which appears the most equitable under the circumstances.
Under the plan, older employees will be placed on early retirement, thus permitting the retention of employees who represent the future of the Government. Therefore, a program to phase out older personnel by the end of the current fiscal year via early retirement will be placed into affect immediately. The program shall be known as RAPE (Retire Aged Personnel Early).
Employees who are RAPE’D will be given the opportunity to seek other positions within the government, provided that while they are being RAPE'd they request a review of their employment status before actual retirement takes place. This phase of the operation will be called SCREW (Survey of Capabilities of Retired Early Workers).
All employees who have been RAPE'd and SCREW 'd may also apply for a final review. This will be known as SHAFT (Study by Higher Authority Following Termination).
Program policy dictates the employees may be RAPE'd once, SCREW'd twice, but may get the SHAFT as many times as the government deems appropriate.
HARBOUR BRETON GIRL WINS ALL-NFLD LIONS SPEAK-OFF
The subject I have chosen to speak upon tonight is a very controversial one in the modern world today. My topic is "Why Not" which is the theme of International Women's Year 1975. In my speech, I shall try to point out the pros of women's liberation and my point of view on the subject.
Where were the women in Canada one hundred years ago? What were they doing? We read of many male pioneers, explorers and politicians but very little of females. The reason for this of course is that the majority of the female population played a very inactive role outside of the role of the home. It was thought that the major role of women was childbearing in which she would find happiness and self fulfillment. But today, the picture has a different prospective. Today, population experts are palling for smaller families and proposing legal limits on their size and the once cherishable role of childbearing becomes less worthy. The myth of motherhood as the supreme goal of women is fading.
It was not until the year 1919 that women were granted the right to vote. It seems like a very long time ago but is it? Why wasn't the woman allowed to vote before 1919? Was it because she did not realize who was more suitable for authority? Was it because she didn't care who was head of government? Or was it because it didn't matter what she thought? They supposedly were inferior to men both physically and mentally. They were deprived of their rightful place in society. They were property not people. They were to be seen and not heard. Why shouldn't she be allowed to vote? It seems very reasonable that she should have some say on the matter. She was to be under the authority of the leader and government as well as the man. But she wasn't allowed to vote. Why Not?!
The labor force seems to be another stumbling block to the female gender. In Canada, women make up one third of the labor force but little representation is given to them in executive jobs and only one eighth of them ever make it to the management level. Many women are paid much less than men even at the same jobs. Some jobs just aren't carried out by women. They are discouraged and urged to refrain from jobs such as politicians, lawyers and doctors. Statistics show that in Canada, only 12 per cent of doctors in practise are women, only 3 per cent are dentists and a small 2.6 per cent of Canadian lawyers are women. To society, these jobs are termed as men's jobs. But what exactly is a man's job? What determines which jobs are men's and which jobs are women's? Apparently, they are not determined by physical strength for the only strength needed for a lawyer would be strength of the tongue. Nor is any great strength needed for a doctor or a dentist. Intelligence could not have been a factor neither, for it has been proven
that women have an intellectual level equilivant (sic) to that of men. This proves that intellectually women are just as capable of fulfilling these jobs as men are. What then, determines it? Dentists, politicians and lawyers are classed by society as high society jobs — jobs of which only the very intellegent (sic) can take. Since women were — and still are considered substandard to men, it seems to be the sole reason for the discouragement of women to take these jobs. They were to step down from their pedestal and to give men the upper hand. I think more women should be lawyers, politicians and doctors. Why Not?!
A very typical scene of today is Mr. and Mrs. Jones, both office workers, doing basically the same work. After a hard day's work, they return home and Mrs. Jones commences getting supper while Mr. Jones takes a shower. She calls him for upper and after the meal Mr. Jones relaxes on the sofa, puts his feet up on the coffee table and reads the stock market report while Mrs. Jones begins the tiring task of cleaning the dishes. Why should Mrs. Jones clean the dishes and cook? Has she not put up with the same trials and tribulations of the day and worked the same eight hours? Does she not deserve a rest as well as Mr. Jones? Why couldn't Mr. Jones help with the dishes and cooking Why Not?
Today, women are mocked for their pride in themselves, their jealousy of other girls, and their conceitfulness. They are poked fun at because they dab perfume behind their ears, powder their nose and are always combing their hair. Who laughs at them? The men of course. But they should practise what they preach. I have often seen a guy comb his hair before he enters a public place, especially if there were girls around. And you could smell Brute or Wild Country a mile away. And they unbutton their shirts that extra button so that the few hairs on their chest are clearly visible to anyone who looks their way. Yet, the women are conceited. It's ironic.
Despite the fact that International Women's Year was a failure, women have taken jobs that were previously banned by females. There are now women bus drivers, engineers, politicians, plumbers, carpenters, heavy duty equipment operators, judges, economists and T. V. repairmen. Women were permitted to become policemen just recently. Now there's even a bionic woman as well as a man. Why Not?!
Ladies and Gentlemen, I have used the phrase "Why Not" so much in my speech tonight that I don't feel that I should end my speech with it. But .... WHY NOT!?!
LAURA LAWRENCE, April 24, 1976.
WOMEN'S EQUITY ACTION LEAGUE
National Press Building. Washington, D.C. 20045 . 202/638/4560
MATERIALS AND PUBLICATIONS
Payment Must Accompany Order;
Prices Quoted Include Postage;
Make Check Payable to WEAL.
THE ENFORCEMENT OF FEDERAL LAWS & REGULATIONS PROHIBITING SEX DISCRIMINATION IN EDUCATION - Report prepared for the IWY Commission. $5.00
WOMEN & HEALTH - A report on, and an analysis of, health legislation, including health education and manpower, health systems agencies, and information on occupational health laws and women. $2.00
SCHOOL SELF-EVALUATION UNDER TITLE IX - Guidelines and necessary information for school self-evaluation. $1.00
HOW TO PREPARE A RESUME - Offers useful suggestions on how to prepare your
resume, gives examples, especially for women. $1.00
SMALL GROUP CONCEPT - How to organize discussion or action group with a 1.00
bibliography of feminist readings. (10 for 5.00)
WORK? YES, I'M A HOUSEWIFE - Articles translated from Brussels publication $1.00
"Les Cahiers du Grif". (10 for 5.00)
The REAL WEAL TOTE BAG can help get you where you're going. It's white canvas with WEAL logo in red; 12" x 12" x 3". $3.50
EQUALITY LAPEL PIN - Small, discreet pin is gold-plated and antiqued with the equal sign inside the female symbol. 2.00 (5 for 7.50)
UPPITY WOMEN UNITE BUTTONS - Black on white. .25 cents each (6 for 1.00)
NAME TAGS, MAILING LABELS - Stick to fabric or paper; 2" x 4"; space for adding name, address; label corner has IWY or Equality Symbol - specify one or the other or mixed.
20 labels 1.00
100 labels 4.50
500 labels 20.00
1000 labels 35.00
STICKERS - Round, one and one-half inch diameter; Blue IWY or Red Equality Symbols; 6 stickers per sheet.
10 sheets 1.00
100 sheets 8.00
500 sheets 35.00
1000 sheets 60.00
EDUCATIONAL AND LEGAL
Payment must accompany orders; postage prepaid-- FIRST THIRD
(Make checks payable to WEAL FUND) CLASS CLASS
1. Marriage: Focus on Change--A summary of current attitudes $1.50 $1.25
toward marriage and the family in several countries, with an
annotated bibliography of readings.
2. Education and the Participation of Women in World Development $2.50 $2.25
--A summary description of the education of women in two parts, one
dealing with developing countries and the other with industrialized
3. Women Graduates in Higher Education--A statistical study of the $2.50 $2.25 proportion of women earning BA, MA, PhD and first professional
4. Women and Fellowships--An examination of the exclusion of $4.00 $3.50
women in the awarding of fellowships and grants. Revised 1976.
5. Higher Education Kit--Includes items on federal laws and $4.00 $3.25
regulations concerning sexdiscrimination in education.institutions
as well as information on filing complaints. Revised 1976.
6. K-12 Education Kit--Includes "My Son the Astronaut, My Daughter
the Witch," a study of sexism in the public schools with a
valuable bibliography, as well as federal laws and regulations
concerning sex discrimination in education institutions and
several useful publications on discrimination in education.
1973 Edition, updated. $2.50 $2.25
1976 Edition, to be published May 1976. $4.00 $3.25
7. Sports Kit--Includes information on Title IX regulations, on $2.50 $2.25
filing complaints of discrimination against women and girls
in sports, on federal law, with bibliography. Revised 1976.
8. World Plan of Action--Condensed version of the document that $ .50 $ .25
came out of the Mexico City World Conference on International
Women's Year last July; contains no anti-Zionist resolution.
STICKERS Red on white. Ten per sheet. Four sheets—
IS IT RIGHT THAT OUR ELECTRICITY BILLS BE INCREASED?????????????????
Hearings before the Board of Commissioners of the Public Utilities commenced on Monday, May 17, concerning the application for a rate increase for the Nfld. Light and Power Company.
One of the jobs of the LIP project is to keep watch on what our government is doing. Members attended city council meetings, House of Assembly sessions, and now we are observing a hearing before the Board of Commissioners of the Public Utilities, the body which functions as intermediary between the consumer and utilities.
There was a request made that the hearings be adjourned until June 14 to allow opposing groups time for preparation. This was approved. The organizations opposing the rate increase are the Federation of Municipalities of Nfld. and Labrador, the Federation of School Board Associationa (sic), and the Consumers Association of Canada. In addition there were 2 people who asked to be heard ad (sic) private citizens.
Consumers are urged to make their feelings known to the Board of Commissioners. If you would like to attend the hearings when they recommence June 14th, contact Winnifred McCarthy who is acting as government watch dog for the L.I.P. project and she will brief you on the case.
The Co-op Baby-sitting group continues to grow. We have 15 children, which is a nice size to work with. The mothers are organizing so that they have mornings when they help with the details involved in setting up and putting away the materials and equipment, as well as being on hand when needed during the session.
At each session a live animal is present for the children to observe. The Nfld. dog who visited recently caused a stir of excitement, but no fear on the part of the children.
With summer approaching we have been discussing whether to keep going with the once a week sessions. In this area of town, there will be children looking for something to do, so we feel we will continue being on hand with our offerings. We have had an offer to borrow a Jungle Gym for over the summer, as well as other play equipment, if we can manage it.
There it a great need for programs for pre-school groups which will offer children enrichment at this important period in their lives.
A workshop was held May 14 - 15 in St. John's which was attended by 100 persons interested in learning more about pre-schoolers' needs. Muriel Locke and Sally Davis were present and feel they gained a great deal.
GENTLEMEN OF THE OLD REGIME IN THE SOUTH USED TO SAY:
“A WOMAN’S NAME SHOULD APPEAR IN PRINT BUT TWICE- WHEN SHE MARRIES, AND WHEN SHE DIES.”
Social History of the American Family Vol II, page 326
WANTED: A galvanized wash tub or a baby’s bath tub for use in our Co-op babysitting centre for when we have water play. Call the Centre and ask for Sally.
FOR SALE: a stereo radio (can accommodate record player equipment) with separate speakers, Mastercraft Home Music system Model 2001
Also Sharp solid state stereo tape deck (cassette) with 2 microphones. Used very little. All for $100 call 368-0614 or 753-0220 ask for Nancy.
Lois Hayweiser announces a general clear out of used clothing sized 12-18, plant pots, jam jars, plastic containers and stuff. Some things free and others unbelievably cheap. Sunday June 13th from 1-5 P.M. in the afternoon at 10 Pinebud Avenue.
WANTED TO BUY: A two-wheel bicycle for a ten year old. Phone Alice Hicks 753-0979.
Looking for a typewriter for under $20.00 if possible. Phone 579-6704, ask for Joan.
A great Hitchiker (sic) $8.00 check with the Women’s Centre.
WANTED TO BUY:
A pup tent or a one man tent. Leave info at the Women’s Centre. 753-0220 C. Mathews.
FOUND: at the Women’s Centre: A white and beige pantsuit jacket 100% polyester size 18.
FOUND: A pair of women’s while and blue mittens.
NOTICE: anyone interested in starting a mixed consciousness raising group call the centre and leave your name.
WANTED people to contribute to the Newsletter, from Grand Falls, Corner Brook, Labrador, Mt. Pearl, Pasadina (sic), Curlang (sic). Manuels, and elsewhere around the island wehre (sic) we have active members. (Non-member that have something to say, please feel welcome to offer your views, articles, poems, etc.
USEFUL NUMBERS TO KNOW
Women’s Centre 753-0220
Human Rights Assoc. 737-2742
Legal Aid 737-7860
Family Planning 753-7333
Al Anon Family Group 726-8010
ECDA (daycare) 753-1200 ex. 3481
Pro Feminae 576-4024
Better Business B. 579-4058
Business & ProFess Women726-3834
On the Go 2
Feedback on Ms. 6
Women in Touch 7
Canadian Research Institute
on the Advancement of Women 8
Divorce: law changes 10
HERSTORY: the missing half 11
Early Retirement Program 23
Speak-off- On feminism 24
W.E.A.L. Materials 26
Want Ads 29
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